Kidney Stones

Definition of Kidney Stones

Kidney stones, also known as nephrolithiasis, are small, hard mineral deposits that form inside of the kidneys. The stones are comprised of mineral and acid salts.

mens kidney stones

The 4 Different Types of Kidney Stones

  1. Calcium Stones: A calcium stone consists of calcium oxalate, but can sometimes consist of calcium phosphate or maleate.
  2. Uric Acid Stones: Crystallization and the formation of uric acid stones occur most often when urine pH is too low.
  3. Struvite: When a person has a bacterial infection such as a urinary tract infection, normally acidic urine becomes more alkaline
  4. Cystine Stones: Cystinuria causes the natural substance of “cystine” to leak into your urine. When there is too much cystine in the urine, stones will form.

4 Ways to Prevent Kidney Stones

Treatment for Kidney Stones

  • Self Treating Kidney Stones – In many cases, kidney stones are usually passed through the urine after a few days. During this waiting phase, your doctor can administer painkillers to help you with the pain. Other than painkillers, you may need anti-emetic medication. This is a type of medication which fights sickness related symptoms like vomiting and nausea.
  • Ureterorenoscopy for Kidney Stones – There are cases when the kidney stone may get stuck in the ureter. During such times, the best option available for you is an ureterorenoscopy. Retrograde intrarenal surgery as this procedure is also called involves passing a long thin urethroscope via the urethra and into the bladder

  • Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy& Kidney Stones – This is another common procedure that works well in scenarios where ureterorenoscopy may not be possible such as in patients who are obese.

  • Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy This is the most common treatment option for large kidney stones. During this procedure, x-rays or ultrasound is used to pinpoint the location of the stone before a special machine that sends shock waves is used on the area to break the stone into smaller pieces.

  • Surgery for Kidney Stones – Sometimes, it is best to opt for surgery in order to remove large kidney stones. Other than being used for very large stones, open surgery is recommended for cases where abnormal anatomy is detected.

Other Procedures